After many skirmishes, Chief Joseph just wanted peace for his people. He was betrayed by the U.S. Army and General O.O. Howard when treaties were broken by the Army. When gold was discovered on Nez Perce land, the Army said the Indians had to leave. Chief Joseph would not sign a treaty where his land mass was reduced from 10,000 to 1,000 square miles. Then the Army was sent after him. Chief Joseph escaped with less than 200 old men, 600 women and children, all known as non-combatants. They headed north but were caught just south of the Canadian border. Read more of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce on pages 76-79 in the workbook.